The impacts of oil spills are not limited to the direct effect on the ecosystem; it goes a long way to affect the social welfare, aggravates poverty, population displacement, social conflict, production reduction and also affects the profit margin of the companies involved. This study is aimed at providing a review and comparison of the remediation techniques currently in use and suggest the most suitable methods of oil spill cleanup and remediation in Nigeria Niger Delta region based on certain criteria and to also suggest ways of mitigating oil spill occurrences in this region. In the course of this research study, data collection was on primary and secondary data. For the primary data, a structured questionnaire was drafted and used for survey relating to the research study to rank and evaluate different perspectives of stakeholders on various remediation techniques that are in consideration. For the Secondary Data, the study was carried out with a literature study to gain an overview of the different remediation methods for PHCs contaminated soils.
Finally using specific criteria including cost efficiency, operation and maintenance of the technique, environmental friendliness, time frame of achieving remedial objectives, health concerns, and applicability of the techniques were used to make an evaluation design for the different remediation techniques for hydrocarbons contaminated soils.
The results from these studies show that single remedial action cannot be used for cleanup but the Thermal desorption and Remediation by Enhanced Natural Attenuation (RENA) was the best placed technique ranking highest under the different criteria of the evaluation design and the sample survey of the remediation techniques considered. More so, In-situ Vitrification is the most cost effective techniques with little or no disturbance of site.