Accurate estimation of the Original Gas in Place (OGIP) early in the reservoir life is fundamental as field development plans and ultimate recovery strongly depend on it. This is particularly relevant when the conventional material balance is not suitable due to the lack of pertinent shut-in pressure measurements. This paper presents a case history of a tight gas field in which we use flowing material balance technique and type curves for decline curve analysis to calculate OGIP by using only flowing pressure and rate data.
The method uses fundamental pseudo-steady state theory, which determines that a plot of the rate-normalized pressure drop vs the pseudo-time produces a straight line with the slope of such line yielding the OGIP. The use of the pseudo time concept calls for the estimate of gas properties at the prevailing reservoir pressure which in turn is a function of the OGIP and the cumulative production. We propose an iterative scheme based on the Newton-Raphson method to compute the OGIP using the flowing material balance technique coupled with the conventional P/Z material balance.
We illustrate the application of the method with the aid of synthetic examples as well as field cases obtained from low permeability gas reservoirs where no shut-in pressures are available. Results from the technique adequately compare with type-curve matching analysis. Furthermore, we demonstrate the problem can be transformed into an equivalent-liquid system and being analyzed with standard PTA techniques using the constant rate liquid solution.
In absence of shut-in pressure information, the PSS analysis offers an attractive alternative to the conventional material balance method. Besides, the method only requires minimal phase behavior data in the case of gases rendering its application practical and convenient. Also, we describe how to transform the constant pressure problem into a constant rate one in order to apply standard PTA techniques. Additionally, this work demonstrates the importance of having automated wells with permanent gauges by enhancing the value of the information provided by them in the framework of an adequate and judicious reservoir management.