Ahmadi is a shallow carbonate reservoir consisting of two units AA and AB. These units are thin, highly faulted and irregularly-fractured. The matrix permeability of Ahmadi is very low; it ranges between 0.01 and 10 md. However, the secondary permeability is playing a big part on achieving some remarkable production figures.
The reservoir is believed to have some fractures which have been proven from image logs. These make the simulation of the reservoir quite challenging. This paper describes how fractures were incorporated in the simulation of Ahmadi where three different methodologies have been considered. These are: single porosity with seismic attributes enhancement, dual porosity dual permeability (DPDP) and virtual fracture network modeling.
In the single porosity model, the fracture properties were represented along with the matrix properties in one cell. It was done by considering some seismic attributes such as Anttrack and Anisotropy and then using the Attributes distributions to generate permeability multipliers. For the Dual Porosity Dual Permeability model where the matrix and fracture cells are different, the seismic attributes were used again but to generate a stochastic fracture network. Alternatively, the virtual fracture network model was created by having fractures intersecting each well based on some assumptions related to well spacing, fracture aperture and fracture direction.
The listed methodologies are discussed in details in this paper. It was found that the virtual fracture network approach led to fast and robust history matching results. It was also observed that Anttrack and Anisotropy seismic attributes helped to represent the fault and non-fault related fractures in both single porosity and dual porosity dual permeability models.