In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the Gulf Region in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) as well as the use of Carbon Dioxide for Enhance Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) in the Middle East Region.
Unlike H2S, carbon dioxide does not support combustion. However, carbon dioxide can cause asphyxia if inhaled in large quantities. While many Middle Eastern oil producers have experience with sour oil and gas fields, there is little or no experience with CCS and CO2-EOR operation.
For CCS and CO2-EOR projects, carbon dioxide is typically transported in pipelines at pressure above its critical pressure (73.82 bar). In the event of depressurization or loss of containment, the escaping CO2 will experience a sudden change in phase which may result in dry ice projectiles being expelled at very high velocities. Other hazards include cryogenic burns to the skin and catastrophic failure of carbon steel equipment due to low temperature metal embitterment.
Dealing with CO2 presents oil producers with new safety challenges. This paper discusses the safety aspects of handling carbon dioxide in CCS and CO2-EOR projects.