Theoretically, rate of penetration (ROP) model is the basic to drilling parameters design, ROP improvement tools selection and drill time & cost estimation. Currently, ROP modelling is mainly conducted by two approaches: equation-based approach and machine learning approach, and machine learning performs better because of the capacity in high-dimensional and non-linear process modelling. However, in deep or deviated wells, the ROP prediction accuracy of machine learning is always unsatisfied mainly because the energy loss along the wellbore and drill string is non-negligible and it's difficult to consider the effect of wellbore geometry in machine learning models by pure data-driven methods. Therefore, it's necessary to develop robust ROP modelling method for different scenarios.
In the paper, the performance of several equation-based methods and machine learning methods are evaluated by data from 82 wells, the technical features and applicable scopes of different methods are analysed. A new machine learning based ROP modelling method suitable for different well path types was proposed. Integrated data processing pipeline was designed to dealing with data noises, data missing, and discrete variables. ROP effecting factors were analysed, including mechanical parameters, hydraulic parameters, bit characteristics, rock properties, wellbore geometry, etc. Several new features were created by classic drilling theories, such as downhole weight on bit (DWOB), hydraulic impact force, formation heterogeneity index, etc. to improve the efficiency of learning from data. A random forest model was trained by cross validation and hyperparameters optimization methods.
Field test results shows that the model could predict the ROP in different hole sections (vertical, deviated and horizontal) and different drilling modes (sliding and rotating drilling) and the average accuracy meets the requirement of well planning.
A novel data processing and feature engineering workflow was designed according the characteristics of ROP modelling in different well path types. An integrated data-driven ROP modelling and optimization software was developed, including functions of mechanical specific energy analysis, bit wear analysis and predict, 2D & 3D ROP sensitivity analysis, offset wells benchmark, ROP prediction, drilling parameters constraints analysis, cost per meter prediction, etc. and providing quantitative evidences for drilling parameters optimization, drilling tools selection and well time estimation.