The reservoir plumbing is a conceptual integrated reservoir description diagram that combines the reservoir architecture, fluid fill and fluid dynamics. The objective of the reservoir plumbing is to highlight the main features in the reservoir that might influence oil and water movements and possible subsurface realizations. The resultant schematic(s) will aid in identifying main uncertainties impacting hydrocarbon development, revealing reservoir data gaps, flagging any bypassed oil and assisting in the revision of the current development or any additional development opportunity. The animated reservoir plumbing is taking the concept to a new level where the reservoir history is presented in sequential events starting from the deposition setting prior initial charge and up to the current state.

The inputs into each time step of the reservoir plumbing are the initial reservoir properties and development activities that had an influence on hydrocarbon and water movements. The required properties are listed with the source of information (seismic data, core, logs, pressure data, PVT, etc) including the degree of uncertainty and their impact on hydrocarbon recovery.

Based on the gathered information, interpretations are translated into conceptual diagrams and presented in snapshots which include;

  1. the initial depositional setting before initial hydrocarbon charge,

  2. hydrocarbon migration,

  3. any structural or diagenetic changes occurring after hydrocarbon charge that might influence fluid fill or movement,

  4. any additional hydrocarbon migration events and subsequent structural changes - if any - and,

  5. possible fluid movement paths (both oil and water) resulting from development wells.

Different versions of the reservoir plumbing might be required to represent alternative subsurface realizations.

The animated reservoir plumbing was created for a carbonate field of the Lower Shuaiba and Kharaib Formations in the Sultanate of Oman at the beginning of the Field Development Plan update. It was used to decide the modelling approach, identify improvements in the development strategy, recognise potentially bypassed oil and acquire additional data ahead of modelling to prove the concept of this bypassed oil.

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