Abstract

Recently, the Climate Change has become a major challenge across the globe. It is disrupting national economies, costing us dearly today and will cost even more tomorrow. Therefore, ‘2015 Paris Climate Change’ marked a historic turning point as it arrived at a universal agreement on climate to keep global warming below 2 °C.

HVAC (Heating, Ventilating & Air conditioning) system in general and its refrigerants (heat transfer media) in particular, has significantly impact Green House Gases (GHG) and climate change. Such systems contribute to GHG emission in terms of direct non-green refrigerant emissions and indirect CO2 emissions associated with the energy needed to operate / run the HVAC system. Hence, HVAC industry has been constantly supporting the global efforts for Green Transition.

The two measures of environmental effect are Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) and Global Warming Potential (GWP). ODP represents the relative ability of a refrigerant (CFC & HCFC), used in Air conditioning System, to destroy stratospheric ozone molecules when released to the atmosphere and thereby increasing the UV radiation reaching the earth. CFCs (Chloro Fluoro Carbons like R 11) have the highest ODP, HCFCs (Hydro Chloro Fluoro Carbons like R 22) have comparatively less and HFCs (no Chlorine Content, like R 410A) have zero ODP.

The Montreal protocol stipulates that HCFCs (like R 22) are scheduled to be phased out by 2040 (likely to be advanced to 2030) in Article 5 countries like Middle East and others. In non-article 5 countries (developed countries), the environmentally friendly substitutes for HCFCs are being developed and used. Currently Middle East is under extended phase out schedule for R 22 till 2030. The local regulatory bodies (like EPA, MEW–Kuwait) have not yet published any recommendations for its environmentally substitute.

Air conditioning & Refrigeration system is extensively used for Control Rooms, Electrical Substations and Offices etc. within KOC premises. This paper provides a detailed study of ‘Refrigerants Progression’ towards Green transition while providing excellent performance benefits. It also provides KOC best practices considering challenges & implementation while taking into account the merits and limitations of Refrigerant(s) for "KOC Air-conditioning system". It is worth broadening our choice of HVAC and applicable Green Refrigerant.

This paper also discusses the steps being taken by KOC towards adopting "Green Refrigerants" to improve KOC's image in protecting our fragile environment, in line with the Paris COP 21Climate Change agreement.

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