Abstract

PART IFuels Developments in Europe: a threat?
Introduction

In 2015 195 members of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have signed the Paris Agreement. The Paris Agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016, after being ratified by 55 countries - representing at least 55% of total greenhouse gas emissions.

The Paris Agreement's long-term goal is to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels; and to limit the increase to 1.5 C, since this would substantially reduce the risks and effects of climate change. Being aware of climate change, aleady in 2009 The European Union published the original Renewable Energy Directive (RED 2009/28/EC) that establishes an overall policy for the production and promotion of energy from renewable sources in the EU. It requires the EU to fulfil at least 20% of its total energy needs with renewables by 2020 – to be achieved through the attainment of individual national targets. As a subtarget all EU member states must also ensure that at least 10% of their transport fuels come from renewable sources by 2020.

In December 2018, the revised Renewable Energy Directive 2018/2001/EU entered into force. It establishes a new binding renewable energy target for the EU for 2030 of at least 32%, with a clause for a possible upwards revision by 2023. Under the new Governance regulation, EU countries are required to draft 10-year National Energy & Climate Plans (NECPs) for 2021-2030, outlining how they will meet the new 2030 targets for renewable energy and for energy efficiency. The subtarget of for renewable energy in transport is raised to 14%.

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