Sea water contains sulfate and formation water contains barium and strontium, if the sea water injected in oil fields reservoirs then the result is the potential for significant barium and strontium sulfate scaling and deposit & possible of reservoir souring due to SRB, s activity.

Scale deposition is a common problem in sea water injection systems, the type and severity of scaling varying between fields.

Sulfate scale formation is one of the most critical problems encountered in oil and gas industries daily activity and operations, the only effective way to avoid sulfate scale is to prevent it from forming.

To prevent barium /strontium sulfate from forming and minimizing the potential of scale formation and associated well work over and squeeze treatment costs, Sulfate most therefore be selectively removed from sea water before being subjected to injection.

A pilot plant CPP-NF (Compressed Phase Precipitation & Nano Filtration) testing was thus conducted to primarily and sufficiently deplete sulfate from sea water before being injected.

The main objectives of the pilot plant is to study and evaluate the feasibility and cost-effective of CPP-NF technology for de-sulfation of sea water and/or MSF brine in Subiya Sea Water Treatment Plant SWTP, the foundation of the selected technology rests on how KOC can : 1) - increase the value and quality of the injected sea water, and 2)- implement the technology in such a way that the improved sea water quality would not cost more than the current situation and serve KOC long term goals.

The pilot testing was very successful and the removal of sulfate was consistently in the range of 98–99%, furthermore, the pilot testing also revealed that the issue of high TSS (Total Suspended Solids) within the facility can be resolved at no additional cost.

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