Cold production as a new primary production process can be used successfully in heavy oil unconsolidated sandstones. Ideal reservoirs are 5–15 m thick uncemented sands with high saturations of <20°API oils with gas in solution without free water or gas zones. However, application of Cold Production to many other cases in other parts of the world imust be investigated. Strategies to initiate sand production involve aggresive perforation and swabbing measures. Keeping sand production stable after initiation requires pumps to cope with large initial sand ratios in a foamy oil form for several weeks, and smaller amounts of sand and foamy fluid continuously for many months. Restoring stable sand production after blockage is currently an "art", and various workover methods are used: better controlled work-over approaches and new technologies are needed. Sand and "gorp" separation from oil at surface is necessary, economic and environmentally sound disposal of these materials probably involves re-injection into depleted reservoirs.

You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.