This paper presents the results of hot-water and steamfloods conducted in a five-foot linear cell. The effect of injection rate of 240°F water and steam was studied for the Kern River viscous oil (13°API) using a fine graded silica sand.

Temperature profiles along the sandpack were used to relate changes in oil saturation with temperature effects. An increase in the water rate resulted in higher temperature profile and minimum Sorw values obtained near the sandface. The results were used for determining the optimum temperature for mobilizing and effectively banking Kern River oil by hot-water floods. A correlation was obtained relating final Sorw values to the oil/water viscosity ratio, thus removing the temperature dependency for the viscous oil (6800 cp @ 80°F).

The steam rate was varied between tests to observe its effect on the steamflood recovery process. The oil and temperature response at the production end was related to the steam fronted advance along the sandpack. The oil response and recovery at steam breakthrough increased with increase in the steam rate. The opposite effect was obtained after breakthrough. The frontal velocity to steam and gas saturation in the steam zone varied with the steam rate. The study evaluates the effect of steam rate on frontal advance, oil banking process, oil recovery, and production to injection ratio as a function of a dimensionless time factor based on steam breakthrough.

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