In this study, a particular hybrid process with propane and steam co-injected is simulated numerically under different operation strategies. The roles of propane in the hybrid process are investigated. The economics of these hybrid processes are also evaluated with a supply cost model. Results show that hybrid processes with steam and propane co-injection can have the same supply cost as that of SAGD process and propane-related cost is a small part of the total supply cost in these hybrid processes due to the small amount of propane used in this study. Results also show that low pressure hybrid processes are more cost-efficient than their high pressure counterparts.

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