A sound geological model, a consistent geocellular model, and flow simulation are all critical components to successful optimization of a heavy oil waterflood project. Despite the availability of a sound geologic model, high quality seismic and abundant core, log, and production data, optimization of the waterflood project at the Smiley Buffalo field in south-central Saskatchewan held many challenges

The primary reservoir at Smiley is the middle Bakken sandstone which was deposited as offshore sand ridges in late Devonian to early Mississippian time. The reservoir structure has been subjected to post-depositional solutioning of the underlying Torquay Formation and karstification which causes reservoir breaks, fracture networks, and irregularities in the saturation functions. These features have important effects on reservoir performance. The geologic model and seismic information were used to construct a consistent structural model. A facies classification model was built with fuzzy logic which used the core and log data as well as the geologic model. Sequential indicator simulation was used to populate the structural model with facies information, and sequential Gaussian simulation was used to populate the petrophysical properties. Representative models were selected for upscaling and flow simulation and subsequent well location selection.

You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.