Sabiriyah Upper Burgan is a clastic reservoir in North Kuwait, under active development through water flooding and ongoing development drilling. The reservoir is one of the most heterogeneous reservoirs in NK, both geologically and with respect to pressure-production performance. There is wide variance in rock & fluid quality laterally and vertically, compounding the development challenges while water flooding.
The crestal portion of the dome-shaped reservoir exhibited a sharp drop in reservoir pressure. As a result of which, Sea Water injection was started at 3 vertical injectors. Surprisingly, the injectivity in 500-1000 md rock was found to be very poor. Well interventions were attempted to improve the injectivity, including a proppant frac. A series of Step rate tests were conducted to understand & evaluate the possibility of injecting above the parting pressure. The wellhead injection pressure requirement was estimated to be about 3700 psia to attain the desired level of injectivity. This was a turning point on the water flooding strategy for the reservoir, as a new project for water flooding was needed with the surface injection pressure capability.
During the preliminary water flood response, it was observed that there were compartments, even 250 ft. away from the injector. In addition, a major part of the mid-flank & lower-flank segments had questionable connectivity. Expansion of water flood was delayed in order to provide sufficient time for data acquisition, interpretation, and analysis, using the sub surface data of all wells penetrating the Upper Burgan. The strategy was to produce and further develop the reservoir with limited drilling of new wells in high pressure channels/segments and adopting Integrated Reservoir Management (IRM) approach. Now the expanded Injection facility is complete, and enhanced injection quantum have been initiated since March 2014. An active surveillance master plan & segment wise review of pressure-production data are under implementation to maximize the benefit of the water flood to this reservoir.
The reservoir response due to water flood has been realized to get 100% production increase with sustainable rates. The pressure sink locales are re-vitalized with indications of pressure increase. The Voidage Replacement Ratio has improved to 1:1 at identified segments (producer-injection combinations) as per channelized architecture. There is indeed a positive response despite a few premature water breakthrough instances in producers located very close to the injectors. The results have led to plan for water flow regulators in injectors so that zonal conformance control can be achieved to improve the areal & vertical sweep. The reservoir simulation model is being updated with all dynamic pressure-production as well as surveillance data so as to optimize the ultimate recovery.
The paper is focused to share the learning curve and the quick adoption of the implementation of actions adhering to the best practice reservoir management.