As oil and gas are found in deeper water and rougher areas, engineering innovation is beginning to play an important part in the production development. This lecture discusses the latest innovative techniques being applied for the connection of single and bundled pipelines to risers, manifolds and other pipelines. Because of the high cost of surface equipment and manned intervention, these new systems are involving remote, diverless techniques to execute the connection. The slides will demonstrate the latest in the state-of-the-art of protection of pipelines by plowing techniques. This will include a brief history of how plowing began and will show details of the first commercial post-trenching plow used by Esso Australia in the Bass Strait. The future conceptual developments of the plowing techniques will also be discussed. The methods by which the concepts are developed, engineered and simulated will be illustrated with a discussion of how the model is used to establish the problem areas, and contingency plans for their solution. This concept is derived from aerospace practice and is being applied to pipeline installation, connection and stabilization.

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