This paper presents an analysis of the stimulation treatment design and operational efficiencies in the Black Sea. In greater detail, the paper focuses on how the stimulation design and each operational step has been optimized to save time, money and ensure an HSE driven completion methodology.

An analysis was performed on the stimulation design and implementation approach looking at its evolution through a knowledge building and lesson learning process. The principal goal was to determine the most economical way to stimulate an offshore well without making any concessions to the reservoirs’ production or ultimate recovery. From the basics of well and frac design to completion optimization, effort was applied in analyzing ball launching procedures, frac spacing, logistical arrangements on the stimulation vessel and all other areas where there was potential to make improvements. Ultimately, an analysis of fluid displacements during flush was performed and deductions inferred.

Past stimulation treatments were analyzed in an effort of better understanding the advantages and disadvantages in terms of production output of the wells. Similarly, an analysis of the completion approach and operational efficiencies showed the ability of pumping three stimulation stages a day. Considering that horizontal wells in the area are usually completed in six stages, a stimulation campaign would effectively be completed in 2 pumping days, 4 days total if no weather or operational delays are faced. Further improvements of this approach have been implemented in 2021 when six stimulation stages have been pumped in a single vessel ride. Applying the ball drop procedure offshore showed optimal results, as it is efficient in reducing downtime in between fracturing stages and in achieving proper isolation between stimulation zones. Likewise, with over flush being a concern throughout most of the stimulation population, certain cases in the Black Sea showed that over flushing did not adversely affect production of the wells with the production exhibiting ~15% above expected production rates post stimulation. In conclusion, the authors believe that the operational efficiencies achieved in the Black Sea are transposable in other offshore environments and successful cost cutting can be achieved by sound engineering and logistical decisions.

The approach and results are beneficial in understanding where the economics are positively impacted in multistage stimulation treatments in the offshore environments, hence ultimately improving the rate of return.

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