Pressure transient analysis (PTA) has been used as one of the important reservoir surveillance tools for tight condensate-rich gas fields in Sultanate of Oman. The main objectives of PTA in those fields were to define the dynamic permeability of such tight formations, to define actual total Skin factors for such heavily fractured wells, and to assess impairment due to condensate banking around wellbores. After long production, more objectives became also necessary like assessing impairment due to poor clean-up of fractures placed in depleted layers, assessing newly proposed Massive fracturing strategy, assessing well-design and fracture strategies of newly drilled Horizontal wells, targeting the un-depleted tight layers, and impairment due to halite scaling. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to address all the above complications to improve well and reservoir modeling for better development planning.
In order to realize most of the above objectives, about 21 PTA acquisitions have been done in one of the mature gas fields in Oman, developed by more than 200 fractured wells, and on production for 25 years. In this study, an extensive PTA revision was done to address main issues of this field. Most of the actual fracture dynamic parameters (i.e. frac half-length, frac width, frac conductivity, etc.) have been estimated and compared with designed parameters. In addition, overall wells fracturing responses have been defined, categorized into strong and weak frac performances, proposing suitable interpretation and modeling workflow for each case.
In this study, more reasonable permeability values have been estimated for individual layers, improving the dynamic modeling significantly. In addition, it is found that late hook-up of fractured wells leads to very poor fractures clean out in pressure-depleted layers, causing the weak frac performance. In addition, the actual frac parameters (i.e. frac-half-length) found to be much lower than designed/expected before implementation. This helped to improve well and fracturing design and implementation for next vertical and horizontal wells, improving their performances. All the observed PTA responses (fracturing, condensate-banking, Halite-scaling, wells interference) have been matched and proved using sophisticated single and sector numerical simulation models, which have been incorporated into full-field models, causing significant improvements in field production forecasts and field development planning (FDP).