Changes in the Federal health-based ozone and fine particulate (PM2.5) standards will cause many regions of the United States to be declared "non-attainment." Attainment plans, which include emission control strategies, will be required by the year 2007. In late 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy began funding a study to determine real-time particulate matter concentrations from various combustion sources. Both the current Federal, and the more stringent California ozone standards have required significant emissions controls for ozone precursors such as nitrogen oxides and volatile hydrocarbons. One goal of the investigators was to determine if control technologies presently in place for meeting state and federal ozone requirements also minimize emissions of fine aerosols from combustion. A second goal was to provide new information about fine aerosol emissions from combustion sources, as the present information is old, and questionable. The study's selected technologies, reflecting the current state-of-the-art, could represent common controls when the new particulate standards take effect.

This paper will review the selection process of the various equipment, discuss the test methods used, and summarize the results. The selections included a rich-burn internal combustion engine with non-selective catalytic reduction, a steam generator with flue-gas recirculation, and two different sized turbines, both with water injection. Test methods included laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), laser aerosol spectroscopy (LAS), EPA Method 5, and a real-time particle-bound PAH monitor. Preliminary data indicates that the best emission controls for ozone precursors currently in place, along with the appropriate fuel selection, have exceptionally low PM2.5 levels, and would be expected to have insignificant impact on PM2.5 concentrations. Therefore, a need for additional fine particulate emission controls on these combustion sources is not anticipated.

You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.