How do regulatory agencies determine how clean is clean? In the absence of federal directives, states have developed a variety of approaches to cleanup standards for soil contaminated by spills from exploration and production facilities. A few states have established cleanup standards through general guidelines or by rule, while other states set cleanup standards on a case-by-case basis. The survey covers: the status of regulatory cleanup standards and trends; the economic concept of beneficial use as a cleanup standard; pit closure standards used as a cleanup standard for crude oil spills; and cleanup standards designed for crude oil spills.

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