A great concern of the national and international organization is the protection of individuals, society and the environment, including the harmful effect of the dangerous materials.
Radiation cannot be seen or smelled, can only be detected by special equipment, and a high levels may lead to damage of the human body, but with the adequate precautions we can handle it safely and without risk to health.
Using radioactive sources in well logging expands to become an indispensable part of formation evaluation.
Americium - 241, beryllium, cesium - 137, are used for well logging to measure various formation parameters.
Radioactive source is one of the means for measuring water channelling behind casing in the well bore.
Indium - 113, iodine 125, iodine - 131, and others are known as tracers in the oil industry.
Cobalt - 60, iridium - 192, are also commonly used for radiography and when inspection of welding is required.
Naturally occurring radioactive materials "NORM" such as uranium - 238, thorium - 222 have been known to be present in varying concentration in hydrocarbon reservoirs. These "NORM" under conditions can be transferred to the surface and deposited as scales and sludges in flow lines, separators, pumps, filters and other vessels.
Radiation is one of the hazards in the oil and gas industry which we have to live with.
The paper objective is not only to provide general guidelines, on how we can manage the radiation in oil fields, but also to show the experience of SUCO in handling this hazard and safe guarding the employees, the public and the environment against the radiation hazard.
The paper will cover the following:
Risk assessment of radiation hazards
Equipment for the area survey
Area classification (NORM)
Personnel monitoring / does limits
Radiation waste disposal
Recommended training & licenses
Rules and legislation