A major onshore oil and gas processing facility currently discharges a produced water stream into the sea. This water stream is contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). After receiving a proposed new permit-to-discharge that significantly lowered the allowable concentration limits for the contaminants in the discharged stream, the facility management commissioned a study to identify applicable treatment options and generate capital cost estimates for each option. Three treatment options were developed, with each generating different levels of effluent quality and capital cost. Facility management was able to use the results of the study to negotiate a less stringent discharge permit, which reduced the size and estimated cost of treatment requirements.

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