Since most oil and gas operations take place in remote areas, they require considerable investments, advanced technology and experienced personnel. Working conditions involve dealing with flammable fluids at high pressures and temperatures, high power heavy equipments, use of toxic or explosive materials, rough weather and harsh topography. These factors provide continuous challenge for the industry personnel in order to keep safety under control, avoid hazardous accidents and fires and minimize damage to the environment.

In Indonesia, during over one hundred years of oil and gas operations, numerous accidents and fires took place which lead to severe injuries and death of personnel. This prompted a serious concern from the Indonesia government to establish control over the frequency of occurrence of such accidents and minimize their effect on the worker's health and environment. Regulation for oil and gas industry were first introduced in 1899 when the Indische Mijn Wet rules were formulated. Based on these rules were formulated and established the safety rules with the formulation of MO Sb. 1930 no. 38 and MPR Sb. 1930 no. 341 rules which define the rights and responsibilities of both government and industry related to the worker's safety and environment. For this purpose a Mining Safety and Environment Inspectors (MSEI) was formed to supervise the application of safety and environment guidelines and perform periodic inspections in the field of operations.

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