Safety strategies are put in place to prevent accidents, minimise their impact and remedy consequences. Reviewing both hardware and software strategies, the areas where E and P is weakest are judged to be related to human behaviour. The problem is traced to the psychology of concept formation. Solutions are demonstrably achievable and are largely embodied in the Enhanced Safety Management programme. Some gaps nevertheless exit and, in Shell Todd Oil Services Ltd (STOS), these are being identified in the programme for Safety Pathogen Auditing, Containment and Elimination (SPACE). The outcome of this programme is argued to be improvement in the quality of safety management, thereby achieving improved performance without additional time or resources.

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