Fossil fuel fired plants are responsible for the one third of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions which thought to be a major contributor to the current rise in the Earth's surface temperature.
Reducing CO2 atmospheric concentrations by capturing emissions at the source—power plants or chemical units—and then storing them in subsurface reservoirs is thought by many scientists to be a reliable solution until emission-free energy sources are developed and viable. The current options for captured CO2 utilization are; Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR), Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery (ECBM), Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR), Food processing applications, Mineral products, Fertilizer manufacture, Algae growth promoter, Enhanced plant growth. The capture and storage of CO2 continues to accelerate as new projects are initiated and existing projects confirm the development scenarios.
A crucial element in CO2 storage is reliable monitoring of CO2 migration behavior and storage volumes. An innovative seismic monitoring techniques, has recently been awarded a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project that will examine the application of time-lapse (4D) seismic technology and advanced reservoir simulation to optimize CO2 EOR operations. Well design, cementing, completions techniques and long life cycle mechanical integrity assurance are currently subject of many R&D projects.
Industry expertise also is being tapped in CO2 projects across Europe and in Australia, including four major EU proposals under the Framework Program Six and the Australian CO2CRC Otway Project. These projects address pertinent issues in CO2 capture and storage such as site selection, storage monitoring and verification techniques, developing local CO2 storage sites from hydrogen- and power-generation plants, and industry training.
In our paper framework of CO2 sequestration and vital aspects such as; site selection, reservoir characterization, modeling of storage and long term leakage monitoring techniques will be illustrated.