Conventional volumetric analysis has its own limitations & challenges to characterize fluid types in complex clastic reservoirs. Presence of shale and radioactive minerals in sandstones makes the evaluation more complicated compared to clean reservoirs as uncertainty become higher to ascertain grain density & total porosity. Delineation of pay zones (heavy oil bearing) & estimation of saturation become more uncertain due to reservoir complexities.
Elemental spectroscopy log can provide real time grain density, TOC (Total Organic Carbon) and mineralogy for complex reservoirs (radioactive sand). However, to determine the fluid type and porosity in this type of reservoir, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) would be the best choice due to its capability of recording simultaneous T1 (Spin-lattice relaxation time) and T2 (Spin-Spin relaxation time) including diffusivity measurement sequences. Compare to the traditional 1D T2 spectrum based interpretation methodology; A new approach of using constrained 2D NMR inversion, enhances the capability to discern different fluid phases by mapping proton density as a function of T2 relaxation time (T2int) in the first parameter dimension and diffusion coefficient "D" (or T1 relaxation time or T1/T2app ratio) in the second parameter dimension. An integrated approach is used by combining NMR and Elemental spectroscopy results to reduce formation evaluation uncertainties in heavy oil reservoirs.
Successful integration of NMR, Elemental Spectroscopy Log with Image and Acoustic results helps to understand reservoir properties in study area. The advantage of using constrained 2D NMR over conventional 2D NMR reduces the uncertainty of responses between Clay Bound Water (CBW) and heavy oil, which has similar T2 relaxation mechanism. Integration of Clay volume from Elemental Spectroscopy measurements in constrained 2D NMR helps to differentiate the heavy oil and clay bound water responses. Furthermore, the combination of NMR & Elemental Spectroscopy results helps to segregate the existence of heavier oil & lighter oil components in the reservoir. Based on these results, potential hydrocarbon zones was identified and successful testing attempts were made.
This paper shows an approach of using constrained 2D NMR results over conventional 2D NMR to overcome reservoir uncertainties & to identify potential pay zones.