The shallow depth unconventional reservoir in Northern Kuwait is essentially a monoclinal structure. Sediments have undergone significant shallow depth diagenesis, which resulted in selective oil/water accumulation, controlled mainly by lithological variations. Thus, the reservoir can be classified as stratigraphic-dominant trap. A correlation approach required addressing these variations, which can also be well understood by non-geologist, and the scheme should be appropriate for selection of perforation intervals.
Reservoir sands are in the form of multi-stacked distributary/fluvial channels. Subsequent to sediment deposition, moderate to intense diagenesis took place. The diagenesis resulted in formation of cemented baffles under low reservoir pressure (250psi) regime. For demarcation of bed boundaries, mapping and modelling purpose the reservoir sand, shale, baffles, gas, water, water above oil, this petrofacies classification method is proposed. The method is well capable of defining the various bed boundaries with fluid/gas content in it with confidence. The method developed after extensive core, core data and log calibration and study. More than one thousand wells correlated.
The classification method is simple, yet robust to characterise reservoir vs. non-reservoir variations and oil/gas vs. water quite effectively. Cementation activities typically noticed on top/bottom of the units but many times in between the reservoir sand also. We are able to correlate cemented layers across the area. The cementation also gives rise to water perched above oil phenomenon due to relatively higher capillary pressure in the zone. Oil is migrated post-cementation and occupied reachable pore spaces. Oil also has undergone significant biodegradation because of favourable temperature and restricted nutrient supply. As a result, thin layers of thermal/biodegraded gas also formed locally. The method allows for surface related categorisation representing clean sand, cemented sand, shale, gas/oil/trapped water zones.
This unconventional reservoir is being developed with thermal application. Thickness of baffles, barrier, gas, water zones are critical in selection of perforation interval for steam application. This classification method is part of perforation selection for first phase of development and modelling purpose, and it was applied to hundreds of wells, many of them are undergoing production operations successfully.