Identifying oil-saturated versus water-saturated sands in shallow, unconsolidated, viscous-oil-bearing terrigenous-clastic reservoirs of Kuwait field is challenging. Field appraisal was based upon seismic, core and wireline-log data from 19 wells. Static and dynamic models incorporating all subsurface data were built to estimate oil-in-place and forecast production. Estimating and modeling fluid saturations in reservoir zones was accomplished by integrating core, dielectric-resistivity, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Wireline Formation Tester (WFT) data. Wells were drilled along a northwest/southeast-trend, thus geologic and reservoir-property variability in east and west parts of the field are uncertain.
Stratigraphy and lithologic properties in these Miocene-age fluvial to shallow-marine strata impart a complex 3–D fluid distribution in the field. Repeated shoreline progradations and retrogradations deposited a stratigraphic succession defined by five facies-associations (i.e., shoal, tidal flat, tidal channel, lagoon, sabkha). Five lithofacies (i.e., shale, shaly sandstone, sandstone, carbonate-cemented sandstone, evaporite) were identified from core, elemental spectroscopy logs, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. Facies associations and lithofacies models were built using a combination of multiple-point statistics and sequential-indicator simulation. Lithofacies distribution in the static model was constrained by the facies-association distribution; reservoir-property distribution (e.g., porosity, permeability) was conditioned by lithofacies.
Discrete reservoir zones were defined to separate oil-saturated versus water-saturated sands. The volume and position of oil-bearing sands are controlled by the defined zones and permeability distribution. The oil-filling process in these viscous oil-bearing reservoirs is typically controlled by the pore throat distribution with the migrating oil taking the path of least resistance. Due to the presence of stratigraphic-flow baffles, fluid contacts vary from sand-to-sand vertically and laterally. Log data, core descriptions, ultraviolet photographs, WFT and pressure volume temperature (PVT) data guided the interpretation of lowest known oil and highest known water levels, thus reducing fluid saturation uncertainty in the field.