Abstract

This paper presents the results of a multi-scenario approach that involves the simulation of chemical EOR processes (polymer- and surfactant-based) for the Ratqa Lower Fars heavy oil (200-1000 cP) field in Kuwait, in order to evaluate the viability of implementing an appropriate chemical EOR strategy. Both technical and economic results are discussed.

The approach used involves the simulation of various chemical EOR scenarios (injection of chemical slugs with different durations and concentrations) using several wells patterns (inverted 5-spot, inverted 9-spot, inverted 7-spot with vertical wells, line-drive with horizontal wells) covering various sizes in terms of area. Preliminary simulations of depletion and waterflooding scenarios were also conducted, as base cases to be compared to.

Hundreds of EOR scenarios were hence simulated and compared using economic indicators such as the final recovery factor and the cost of chemicals per additional barrel of oil produced, compared to the waterflooding base case scenario.

The analysis of the different simulated scenarios shows that due to injectivity issues (low maximum injection pressure to prevent the shale cap rock from being fractured), inverted patterns (inverted 9-spot and especially inverted 7-spot) had to be considered to enhance overall performance and reach promising recovery factors using chemical EOR methods.

It is also shown that the impact of the pattern area for the same pattern type (inverted 7-spot configuration) is of paramount importance to the final recovery factor obtained after a fixed simulation duration (20 years in the present case). While the overall efficiency of each EOR process - in terms of recovery factor as a function of the injected solution expressed in pore volume - is kept similar when varying the pattern area, the pattern size is directly linked to the final recovery. Indeed when the pattern area is increased, a smaller volume (in terms of pore volume) of chemical solution can be injected in a fixed timeframe.

Finally, the use of simplified economic indicators allowed comparing different EOR processes (polymer and surfactant-polymer) and potential patterns in order to find the most promising configuration in preparation for field implementation.

The proposed approach is new as it presents and discusses for the first time the results of a detailed simulation study to evaluate the potential application of chemical EOR processes at the Ratqa Lower Fars heavy oil field in Kuwait. The results of this study are promising and clearly demonstrate the potential applicability of chemical EOR processes in similar heavy oil reservoirs.

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