The objective of this project was to evaluate extreme, limited-entry perforating and particulate diverter completion techniques with ultrasonic perforation imaging and distributed temperature sensing (DTS). The scope of this project includes multiple, Midland Basin, horizontal wells completed with varied completion designs. Ultrasonic images of the perforations were obtained prior to fracturing and post-fracturing to observe erosion patterns of each design. Fiber optic DTS warmbacks gathered temperature profiles of each wellbore after stimulation to quantify fracture initiation points (FIP) of each design.
Perforation imaging results showed that all perforation clusters were eroded. This indicates that all clusters of perforations received some amount of treatment fluid and proppant. The data collected also suggest that perforation erosion occurs quickly, and the rate of perforation erosion decreases dramatically after a critical mass of proppant is pumped through the perforations, potentially negating high perforation friction designs early in the stage. Despite all clusters showing some level of perforation erosion, fiber optic DTS warmback data only showed fracture initiation points for ∼70% of the clusters (cluster efficiency of 70%). This data suggests that multiple clusters could be receiving fluid and proppant while contributing to a single fracture network and not creating a unique, dominate fracture for each perforation cluster. Another possibility is that although some clusters were receiving treatment slurry, the amount of stimulation was not sufficient to create and sustain a major fracture.
The data gathered in this project should change conventional thought processes on a number of subjects including perforation erosion, limited-entry, diverters, proppant placement, fracture growth, and DTS interpretations.