With the large number of fracture stages, and size of jobs being pumped in horizontal wells, many companies have elected to use non-standard, or non-commercial natural sands as propping agents. The Stim-Lab Proppant Conductivity Consortium, supported by approximately 50 proppant suppliers, pumping service companies and operators, has developed consistent laboratory conductivity test procedures over the past 30 years that have become de-facto industry standards. One outcome of this long history of proppant testing is a set of correlations that can predict the baseline conductivity, as a function of closure stress and rock (substrate) properties, within the range of uncertainty of laboratory tests. Inputs to the correlations are basic material property measurements such as specific gravity and median particle size of the sieve distribution. The correlations can be used to compare materials of unknown properties to standardized data sets, or to develop useful predictions of how a non-standard material is likely to perform. The correlations are general enough for application to brown sand, white sand, resin-coated materials, and ceramic proppants of various sizes and densities. These correlations have been found to be sufficient for comparing proppants and for estimating their performance in production computations, when adjustments for appropriate damage and cleanup are made to the calculated baseline conductivity values.

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