Kansas Waterflood Symposium of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME,19 November, Great Bend, Kansas


The Lansing-Kansas City formation, most prolific of several oil producing formations in the Hall-Gurney field, lies at a depth of about 2,900 feet and structurally is a relatively flat anticline.

Originally only wells in structural troughs along the edges of the field produced water with the oil, but by 1959 more than half of the wells produced appreciable quantities of water. Studies of the oil and water production histories of these wells, together with studies of analyses of produced water, indicate several natural and accidental floods. Waters entering through leaky casings and from improperly plugged wells have greatly complicated a correct interpretation. On many leases oil recoveries were increased as a result of these accidental floods.

Future water-flood development should consider the past oil and water production histories of the property as it relates to probable oil and water saturation of the several oil productive zones.


The geology and production history of the Hall-Gurney field in Russell County, Kans., have been studied by Bureau of Mines engineers with a view toward suggesting methods to increase oil recovery. Waterflooding is one of the more successful methods commonly used for increasing oil recoveries and should have wide application in this field. In the consideration of properties for flooding, a knowledge of the oil and water contents of the oil productive zones is important. If the oil content is too low or the water saturation is too high, the flood will be unprofitable. Usually oil and water-production histories are valuable guides to the probable oil and water saturations of a property. However, in an old field, an increase in water production does not necessarily mean natural encroachment of edge or bottom formation waters. Leaky casings or faulty bottom-hole plugs may allow extraneous waters to enter the well or wells.

The chemical and physical characteristics of each extraneous water differ somewhat from those of water from the oil-productive zone. These differences can be determined and emphasized by a careful study of analyses of samples of produced waters.

This paper describes the use of water analyses and water-production data in determining the nature and extent of natural and accidental flooding of the Lansing-Kansas City limestone in the Hall-Gurney field. Six such flooded areas are described where oil and water production rates have been increased. Although some additional oil has been recovered by these floods, accompanying changes in the oil and water saturations of the oil producing zones seriously limit the potentialities of the areas for further planned development.

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