History matching on a 'well by well' basis of the measured and simulated results is obtained from standard general-purpose reservoir simulator.
Predictions of performance and deliverability of a gas storage reservoir, design of a gas storage reservoir and simulation of peak requirements are very man-time intensive and cannot be accurate enough without correct handling of the well-surface connection.
This paper describes the recent development of the well-control options which generalises and facilitates the use of Gaz De France's in-house 'multi-gas'/water underground gas-storage reservoir simulator.
Description of the conditions, constraints, and actions at each level (well, platform and terminal station) and solutions are rigorous. All rate and pressure conditions at the wells, target rate and a common single pressure at the platforms and terminal are solved with no approximations, because, for gas storage reservoir simulations, the results and solutions of typical scenarios are extremely sensitive to a very small change in pressure; therefore, the solution must be as accurate as possible.
A comprehensive range of features, constraints and actions is available on pressures, rates, rate ratios, gas concentrations, volumes, saturations, pipes, compressors and gas treatment.
Full-field study and example applications show the utility of this important option.
Compared with improvement of simulators, with features such as, for example, fully implicit scheme, naturally fractured reservoir description, compositional modelling, flexible gridding, history matching, etc. for helping the user during the matching stage of a reservoir study, it seems that up to 1995, very little progress has been made about the prediction or the pre-development planning stage of the reservoir study.
The utility of integrating surface facilities to the reservoir model for 'well management' has been set out in some early publications in the 1980's and also in some commercial simulators showing features that include well-centre field-control and target facilities. A paper described an integrated surface facilities/reservoir simulator for the gas storage industry. In 1995, three papers were presented at the 13th SPE symposium on Reservoir Simulation: