To find more effective means to enhance permeability in Devonian shales and other unconventional, tight, or naturally fractured reservoirs, new stimulation methods are being pursued that have the ability to create multiple radial fractures. The desired result is to create several fractures of sufficient length that intersection with the natural fracture system is highly probable.

Methods were developed for experimentally testing high-energy materials through the use of pipe tests and a borehole simulator. The results of these tests have shown that central initiation of the charges provides the best control and most consistent performance. Simulation of water tamped charges showed that water could significantly reduce performance due to quenching of unburned propellant. Recommendations are presented for obtaining maximum use of the available energy, consistent combustion behavior, and packaging considerations.

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