Collection and analysis of gas/condensate fluid samples present considerable challenges. That is because downhole sampling of a gas/condensate fluid, unlike its oil counterpart, does not guarantee retrieval of single-phase fluid. The same is true for surface sampling because of incomplete surface and/or downhole separation. Given this reality, the PVT analysis of any fluid sample with an equation-of-state (EOS) model demands that the results are verified with independent measurements.

Our analyses of many samples show that a good correspondence exists between the PVT-derived gradient and that obtained from wellbore-flow modeling of production-test data. Older generation formation testers, those prior to 1990, although yielding comparable results, had larger error bars owing to system limitations in repeatability of both pressure and depth measurements.

We developed a yield-temperature correlation to fill in the information void for reservoirs that fall within the bounds of measured data over a large geographic area. Correlating CO2 with formation temperature was a stepping stone to the yield/temperature relationship. This approach is applicable for the analysis of both single-reservoir and multi-reservoir samples, which is particularly useful when rapid assessment is needed over large regions.

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