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A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate formation damage due to steam injection. The investigation includes the adsorption and desorption of divalent ions and the transportation of scales through the formation. Several displacement tests were made at different elevated temperatures (200 degrees F to 500 degrees F) and steam salanity or alkalinity to determine the rate and nature of formation damage during steamflooding. Other tests conducted in this study include; roller oven tests, SEM EDEX and petrographic studies.

The results from this study show there is decline in the permeability when temperature permeability when temperature and alkaline concentrations are increased. It was also observed that the alkaline solution PH decreased with increase in temperature. SEM, X-Ray, EDX and petrographic analysis show petrographic analysis show pseudo-hexagonal stacks of pseudo-hexagonal stacks of mineral overgrowth which blocked the pore throats. There was dissolution of minerals and precipitation of aluminosilicate such as zeolite. This study provides screening procedure for estimation of potential formation damage due to steam injection. Also, the results obtained in this study relate to actual formation during steam cyclic steam and direct steam injection.


In order to understand the theory of reaction kinetics related to this experimental investigation, it is necessary to look at the physio-chemical aspects of reaction kinetics.

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