By and large, the oil and gas industry is not happy with the success rate of treatments performed for control of excessive water produced with oil and gas. As a result, aside from treatments to stop early water break-through caused by poor quality completions, the industry views the costs of excessive water production as more acceptable than the risk of losing or reducing oil and gas production. Part of the problem is lack of clarity as to where and when water flow can and should be controlled, and the treatment selections and design considerations that can lead to successful execution.
Paper divides the produced water into two separate categories, segregated and commingled. Commingled water is often best left alone and accepted as an unavoidable part of oil and gas production. The exception is when the oil content of part of the flow stream is very low compared with the companion water. Segregated water flow can be treated and controlled with several different types of treatment. The paper discusses these and offers choices based on reservoir conditions.
Another important factor contributing to success and failure of water control treatments is the placement conditions. The paper shows that most of these are done at rates high enough to fracture the formation and this situation substantially reduces the treatment effectiveness.