The paper describes the theory of modelling waterflood induced fractures and the features which distinguish this process from conventional hydraulic fracturing. The mechanisms which are described in detail and illustrated by examples include 2-dimensional leak-off, the effect of previous injection, relative permeability and thermal effects, and pre-existing propped or acid fractures. All of these features have been found necessary for accurate matching of complex injection history of North Sea wells.

You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.