Two field tests were done injecting a mixture of water and liquid oxygennear Graham, Texas. On the first test the results were on initial decrease ininjection pressure and a 20% increase in production for 40 days. The oil field was an irregular six spot water flooded, Gun Sight Sand unconsolidated channels and formation at a depth of 520 ft. (158 m.). In the second field test oil production increased 20% for 300 days, water injection pressure done on a batch basis increased from 0 to 230 psi (0 to 1590 kPa) to a range of 300 to 550 psi(2068 to 3790 kPa), and oil production from a deeper formation doubled. The oil field was an irregular, five spot, water flooded, Strawn Sand (consolidated sand with limestone formation at a depth of 1900 ft. (579 m.). These tests indicated the water/liquid oxygen process would be an economic success done on an going basis in similar oil formations.


In 1980 Len Andersen invented and disclosed to many concerns a process for oil recovery by injecting liquid oxygen into an oil formation. Since then hepatented the process, spoke to people concerning how they used the process, heard people had been robbed and killed taken in by fraud concerning the process and put no money in his pocket from the process. In 1988 he got enough money to do a field test.

It appeared that the injection of liquid oxygen might also control channeling in water flooding. A program was put together in 1989 to investigate the effects of injecting liquid oxygen into an oil formation with a field test and making public the results. To control cost, a change in the process was done. Liquid oxygen was mixed with water at the injection well head and the mixture of water, ice, liquid oxygen and oxygen gas was injected. This yielded a bulk temperature of approximately 32°F (O°C), which is compatible with well assembly steel. Otherwise at the boiling temperature of oxygen -297°F (-183°C)special materials such as copper, aluminum and stainless steel would have had to be used. Jim Hester provided field selection and field knowledge.

The field test was done as an initial step. A quantity of liquid oxygen mixed with water was injected as quickly as possible into the oil formation and monitoring of production, water injection pressure, physical properties of the produced crude, etc. was done. The success in the first test led to a similar second field test in the same geographical area. On the second test the lithology, produced crude, degree of consolidation, depth and well assemblies were different.

Field Test I

Field History and Description: The field started producing August 1984 with a water injection pressure of 450 psi (3102 kPa), and a production of 30-35 b/d(135 m-3/d), Injection pressure dropped off rapidly in August 1988to approximately 280 psi (1930 kPa) with a production rate of 6–7 b/d (1.0– 1.1m-3/d).

In July of 1989 the field had borderline economics, before the test. The caprock is shale and 145 ft.(44.2m.) thick. Initially the well pattern was an" irregular 6 spot". The injection well was a 4 1/2 inch casing without a tubular with an open hole completion, the producing wells are perforated completions with the thickness of the pay zones between 4 ft.(1.22m.) and 40ft(12.2 m.) measured at the wells.

Equipment and Theory

Initially a liquid oxygen pump was the way liquid oxygen was to be delivered to the well head. No suitable liquid oxygen pump could be found therefore an alternative system was developed. The generalized PI&E (Piping Instrumentation & Equipment) diagram Figure 1 "PI&E Diagram for First Field Test Using the Water/Liquid Oxygen Injection Process" Said fluid(water/liquid oxygen) is a mixture of liquid oxygen, gaseous oxygen, water and ice at approximately 32°F (0°C).

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