Abstract

Oil production has been an important industry in the Appalachian basin for over a century. Most oil reservoirs in this region have been produced by primary recovery only, yielding some 5-25% of the stock tank oil originally-in-place. As a result, 75-95% of the STOOIP remains in the reservoirs. Waterflooding is one technique that could be used to recover these potential reserves. Waterflooding, the process of injecting water into an oil reservoir to displace the crude, is perhaps the most economical of any improved oil recovery process due to the general availability of water, ease of injection, and limited development costs. The waterfiooding potential of the Berea, Big Injun, and Medina sandstone formations was evaluated to explore the applicability of waterflooding in the Appalachian basin. This paper documents those evaluations and gives guidelines for examing reservoirs of a similar nature. First, the geologic and engineering considerations for implementing a watedlood were assessed for each reservoir in detail. Then, predicted performance was modeled using the Dykstra-Parsons technique. The predictions of the model were verified by matching performance data from two Berea pilot waterfloods. Each of the reservoirs evaluated displayed good potential for waterflooding given sufficient oil to warrant an improved recovery process. A cursory economic analysis of a pilot waterflood in the Medina formation was also performed that showed a waterflood could be economical at $15/barrel. Since each reservoir evaluated displayed characteristics favorable for waterflooding, it was concluded that waterflooding is indeed applicable in the Appalachian Basin.

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