The U.S. Department of Energy, Petroleum Consulting Services, Universal Well Services, and Canadian Fracmaster have recently performed eight CO2/sand stimulations on four Devonian Shale gas wells in the Appalachian Basin. Four two-stage CO2/sand stimulations were executed with two operators in the Pike and Martin County, Kentucky area. All stimulätions involved 120 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) and up to 47,500 pounds of sand. In addition, there are eleven existing control wells stimulated with four two-stage foam fracs and seven two-stage nitrogen fracs. Production results from these fifteen wells are compared. After nine months of production, CO2/sand fractured wells in the Pike County, Kentucky study area are nearly twice as productive as nitrogen gas fraced wells and nearly five times better than the foam fraced wells in the study group. The per well incremental gas production after nine months ranged from 13.5-22.2 MMcf per well for nitrogen gas and foam fraced wells, respectively. Discussion of the CO2/sand treatment parameters, job execution, and a representative pressure/injection response are discussed in detail. As the operators begin to utilize the CO2/ sand frac process on more wells, the new stimulation process will become commercially available on a routine basis.

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