In unconventional reservoirs, a novel polyacrylamide called high viscosity friction reducer was utilized throughout the previous decade to transport proppant. The product's advantages included freshwater use reduction, a more than 30 percent reduction in chemical use, and a decrease in the footprint of equipment such as trucks and tanks. Nonetheless, high TDS could limit the effectiveness of HVFR in providing better hydraulic fracturing treatments. This study investigates the impact of Utica's high TDS on HVFR using a flow loop test.

The study investigates the consequences of the following four factors. The effect of TDS using DI water, 10% and 30% of the Utica-produced water concentration. Two pipe sizes (i.e., 1/2 and 3/4) are applied to determine the pipe's loop size. The effect of HVFR concentration on friction reduction utilizing three HVFR concentrations (i.e., 0.5, 1, and 2 gpt). The impact of temperature on HVFR and friction reduction using room temperature of 21°C and reservoir temperature of 65.5°C.

The results demonstrate that HVFR provided a significant friction reduction utilizing DI water and at high TDS concentrations where friction reduction exceeds 67% using 10% or 30% of the Utica-produced water concentration. In addition, the result indicated that HVFR was strongly affected by a temperature of 65.5 °C (150 °F), where the friction reduction was around 40%, compared to a room temperature of 21 °C (70 °F), where the friction reduction is almost 70%. Furthermore, the outcomes showed that HVFR prepared with fresh water showed a significant friction reduction at low HVFR concentrations of 0.5 and 1 gpt, where the friction reduction was approximately 60 and 70%, respectively. Increasing the HVFR concentrations to 2 gpt did not improve the friction reduction compared to 1 gpt, where the friction reduction was around 66%.

This work provides a comprehensive understanding of the effect of Utica Shale produced water, fluid concentration, and temperature on the performance of HVFR as fracture fluids by evaluating the friction reduction across a flow loop test.

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