Abstract

It is estimated that only one third of the remaining worldwide oil and gas reserves are conventional, the remainder being in unconventional reservoirs whose evaluation requires appropriate measurements delivered in a cost-effective way. In the case of shales and other tight reservoirs, the defining characteristics are low matrix porosity and low or ultra-low permeability which requires artificial stimulation to encourage production. The optimum stimulation strategy for a particular reservoir is strongly dependent on the distribution of organic material, and on the mechanical and geometrical properties of the rock, and the associated stress field. It is essential to quantify these to an appropriate level of certainty, and well logs are the primary source of such data. Until recently the options for acquiring appropriate logs in high angle and horizontal wells have been constrained either by the limited available sensors or tool conveyance methods. However, the introduction of memory capable small diameter specialized tools and multiple innovative conveyance options has changed the cost-benefit balance for the better. This paper reviews the current status of open hole log measurements with full spectrum conveyance options, and how they impact the evaluation of these challenging reservoirs.

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