Production analysis can aid in the determination of formation and stimulation characteristics including permeability, fracture half length, fracture conductivity, and completion efficiency. The time to the end of the infinite acting linear flow combined with the distance between stimulated fracture faces yields permeability. The production analysis method includes three flow regimes; infinite acting linear flow, fracture-fracture interference from evenly spaced fracture stimulation treatments which leads to boundary dominated flow and fracture-fracture interference when fracture stimulation treatments are unevenly spaced.

Production for the uneven or non-uniform spacing situation can provide perforation cluster completion efficiency for plug and perf completions and can be diagnostic in packer ports systems when stimulations are originated at the packer due to packer induced rock failure.

Low completion efficiencies could dictate fewer clusters per stage in future designs. If low completion efficiencies are revealed, increased isolation to maintain actual stimulated fracture face distance may be required. In packer port systems identification of non-design uneven spacing may also warrant increased isolation.

Case studies from three shale reservoirs are included to illustrate the production analysis techniques.

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