Erosion arising from sand production is recognized as a significant problem in the oil and gas industry, which can a potential danger for operators and a cause for production downtime. In many offshore production systems, it is crucial to determine which well is producing sand so that preventive measures can be applied to minimize sand production. One type of sand detection equipment that is often used by oil and gas companies is an electrical resistance (ER) probe. ER probes are effective monitoring real-time "metal loss". But, there are many flow conditions for which sand may not be impacting and/or eroding these probes. Temperature changes can also obscure ER probe measurements. In this study, experiments were conducted mainly on a large scale multiphase flow loop utilizing 3-inch and 4-inch test sections under gas dominant low liquid loading conditions. The effects of superficial gas velocity, superficial liquid velocity, sand size, pipe size and flow orientation on erosion were also examined. Additionally, acoustic sand monitor was also used on the flow loop and the results are compared with ER probe data. A model that is developed for temperature compensation of ER probes shows significant promise for improving ER probe data for situations where temperature of the flowing fluid changes significantly. Furtheremore, understanding erosion rates that are measured by ER probes can help engineers determine the appropriate production rate in the field and initiate inspection and operation plans to ensure safety and continuous production.

You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.