In this paper, the relationship between cement mix water quality and cement quality are investigated. Water quality will be tested for chlorides, calcium and magnesium, pH, and alkalinity. Full API analysis will be used to compare the effects that different concentrations of the aforementioned components have on cement properties.
Each component previously mentioned will be measured out at specific concentrations in the water. The water will then be used to mix a cement slurry according to API Specification 10. After the slurry is blended, a battery of tests will be run including thickening time, viscosity, compressive strength, free water and fluid loss. Each parameter will then be compared to the results of the cement slurry that was mixed using distilled or de-ionized water. We will also look at the effects of all the "additives" included in the water sample used to mix the cement and any change they have made to the properties of each blend.
This is mainly a study for quality control purposes. We are taking a look at what the limits for specific elements are and what their influence is on certain cement properties. These analyses will help us determine if slurry being considered is suitable for any particular job proposal. This will also enhance our quality control measures and improve our stance on customer satisfaction, which is always our main goal.
In the Gas and Oil industry today, the global demand has drilling companies drilling at a record pace. With the fast pace can come all sorts of problems from many areas. Many people get in a hurry and overlook some of the small details that normally don't cause any problems but have the potential to be disastrous. The area we are going to look at is the cement and pipe setting process. When a certain string of casing is set at certain depths, each state or area has its own sets of regulations on the types and properties of the cements that can be used.
There are different factors that can affect the cement quality produced. These factors can include the dry cement quality, downhole conditions, formation properties, temperature, debris and fluids left in the hole, how the cement is mixed and the water used to mix the cement. Water quality is probably one of the most overlooked aspects of cementing in the gas and oil field in the Northeast of the United States. Source water can be contaminated with many different compounds. Many of these compounds can have an unfavorable affect on cement slurry. For this purpose we began exploring the most common contaminates and their affect on cement properties including thickening time, compressive strength, rheologies, free water and fluid loss according to the concentrations of contaminates.
Chlorides are one of the compounds that can cause the most problems. Water can easily be contaminated with chlorides from water trucks and/or water tanks that have previously held brine water. Sometimes a careless water truck operator will kill two birds with one stone by hauling brine to be disposed of to another persons water tanks. One of the major downfalls of extra or too high of a chloride content is that the setting time is accelerated. For this reason alone, it pays to run a quick water analysis for chloride content.