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Keywords: wormhole
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Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference and Exhibition, June 3–5, 2015
Paper Number: SPE-174167-MS
... required to penetrate into the formation to create a wormhole—a function of reactive fluid used, injection rate, and temperature—the more efficient the treatment. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) has both a high dissolution rate and dissolution capacity which, at high temperature, results in dissolution of the face...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference and Exhibition, June 3–5, 2015
Paper Number: SPE-174270-MS
... of wormholes or highly conductive channels are formed, which are the result of two very distinctive, but interconnected processes. On the one hand, there are chemical reactions between the carbonate minerals and the acid and on the other hand, there are the fluid dynamics of the injected acid, i.e. the fluid...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference & Exhibition, June 5–7, 2013
Paper Number: SPE-165141-MS
...-created wormhole will bypass the damaged zone). As discussed earlier, previous work ( King et al. 1986 , Subiar 2004 ) showed that clean perforations are related to more successful acidizing. Other work showed that injection rate and pressure can be improved if clean perforations are achieved...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference & Exhibition, June 5–7, 2013
Paper Number: SPE-165166-MS
... wormhole penetration fluid displacement wormhole acidizing spe 165166 viscosity Upstream Oil & Gas wormhole trajectory Permeameter fluid viscosity pressure gradient data Mahmoud pressure gradient permeability Fluid Dynamics flow rate wormhole length interpretation viscosity change...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference & Exhibition, June 5–7, 2013
Paper Number: SPE-165203-MS
... determine the location of iron deposition. The core effluent samples were analyzed for iron and calcium concentrations using ICP-OES. Results showed a significant amount of iron precipitated on the injection face of the cores and the sides of wormholes, i.e. where the contact occurs between the acid...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, June 7–10, 2011
Paper Number: SPE-143449-MS
... into the wormholes and allows complete stimulation of all treating zones. After acid treatment, the viscous fluid is broken by either formation hydrocarbons or pre-flush fluids. However, recent lab work confirmed that a significant amount of surfactant was retained inside the core even when mutual solvent was used...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, June 7–10, 2011
Paper Number: SPE-143643-MS
... in carbonate formations. In-situ gelled acid is prepared by gelling the HCl acid with a polymer and adding a crosslinker agent (FeIII) to the system. The lower fresh acid viscosity allows penetration in wormholes and fractures until acid reaction increases the pH to value of 2 and causes crosslinking...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, June 7–10, 2011
Paper Number: SPE-143959-MS
... data. upstream oil & gas simulation optimization acidizing concentration particle operation simulator artificial intelligence fluid dynamics efficiency experiment wormhole flow in porous media deposition spe 143959 optimal injection rate reaction rate permeability reservoir...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, June 7–10, 2011
Paper Number: SPE-144200-MS
... pressure is higher than reservoir pressure, some amount of acid will flow into the formation, creating wormholes and enhancing formation conductivity ( Mikhailov et al. 2008 ). The process is repeated for each stand numerous times from the toe to the heel section. Model Approach Introduction...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 8th European Formation Damage Conference, May 27–29, 2009
Paper Number: SPE-122357-MS
... is that acid propagates wormholes through vuggy carbonates much more rapidly than occurs in more homogeneous rocks. Acid-created wormholes were observed to break through to the end of the cores an order of magnitude more rapidly than occurs in more homogeneous cores, highlighting the necessity of understanding...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 8th European Formation Damage Conference, May 27–29, 2009
Paper Number: SPE-122327-MS
... and low permeability crush zone created by the drilling process a formic acid precursor (FAP) was used. The precursor is added to the completion fluid and reacts slowly with brine to release formic acid in the reservoir section. Conventional acidisation with HCl can cause wormholes, localised leak-off...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the European Formation Damage Conference, May 30–June 1, 2007
Paper Number: SPE-107780-MS
... in a long horizontal well, and to predict the subsequent effect of the acid in creating wormholes, overcoming damage effects, and stimulating productivity. The model tracks the interface between the acid and the completion fluid in the wellbore, models transient flow in the reservoir during acid injection...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the European Formation Damage Conference, May 30–June 1, 2007
Paper Number: SPE-107755-MS
... Abstract The principle of a matrix acidizing treatment in carbonated reservoir is to bypass damaged near wellbore zone by creating empty channels called wormholes. The success of the stimulation depends on the ability of an operator to control the unstable process producing those wormholes...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the European Formation Damage Conference, May 30–June 1, 2007
Paper Number: SPE-108023-MS
... of a 1/" coiled tubing unit. This revolutionary method creates a "reservoir engineer's" hole, using simple equipment at low-cost. A highly stimulated lateral tunnel, branching from the original well with a fractal of smaller branches (wormholes) born out of the lateral hole, mimicking a plant root...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the European Formation Damage Conference, May 30–June 1, 2007
Paper Number: SPE-107749-MS
... of these wells experience drilling mud damage. One of the challenges in stimulating long horizontal wells with open-hole completion is the placement of stimulation fluids for effective zonal coverage and generating wormholes to pass the damaged zone. Placing gelled acid through coiled tubing has been...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, May 25–27, 2005
Paper Number: SPE-94566-MS
... Abstract Wormholing is a common phenomenon in carbonate acidizing. These macro-sized channels, which are several orders of magnitude larger in diameter than natural pores, provide a magnified flow path, and hence enhance productivity. As the acid mainly attacks the larger pores, acid can...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, May 25–27, 2005
Paper Number: SPE-94695-MS
... Abstract In matrix acidizing of carbonate reservoirs, the generation of wormholes is a major key to success. Numerous papers have been written that describe the formation and propagation of such wormholes. Generally, these models have been based on sound chemistry and physics. Some...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, May 13–14, 2003
Paper Number: SPE-82263-MS
... into the wormholes and allows complete stimulation of all treating zones. After acid treatment, the viscous fluid is broken by either formation hydrocarbons or pre-flush fluids. The VES based self-diverting acid contains no solids, so there is no bridging when it is pumped through tubing. Rheological studies showed...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, May 13–14, 2003
Paper Number: SPE-82273-MS
... dissolution of the rock takes place creating highly permeable flow channels, called wormholes. In general, for a matrix acidizing treatment in carbonates, the deeper the wormholes penetrate into the formation, the better the outcome, as characterized by a lower skin factor. Thus, the deeper the wormhole...

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