Abstract

An existing limitation of chelant-based fluids available for sandstone acidizing with hydrofluoric acid (HF) is the presence of sodium in the concentrate of the aminopolycarboxylate fluid, which is common in all chelating agents soluble below pH 3.5. The presence of sodium complicates stabilization of the fluid during acidizing processes because of the myriad of chemical reactions that can impact the outcome of a treatment. The use of chelating agents has expanded the temperature range as well as the type of clay minerals that can be exposed to an HF fluid; however, limitations still exist. Core flow testing at 360°F and corrosion testing from 265 to 360°F were conducted. Flow tests were performed using outcrops of two types of sandstones and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis was conducted to elucidate the ionic composition of the spent fluid. Results reported stem from core flow testing with glutamic acid diacetic acid (GLDA) containing HF at very high temperatures (360°F). To encompass a broad range of mineral composition, two types of sandstone cores were employed—heterogeneous (Bandera, 65% quartz) and clean (Leopard, 95% quartz). Corrosion inhibition of the GLDA/HF fluid for use with coiled tubing (CT) was achieved up to 320°F, employing varying classes of inhibitors. The GLDA/HF fluid exhibited lessened corrosion tendencies and could be inhibited for at least 6 hours at 360°F for drillpipe (mass loss rates of 0.025 to 0.05 in./ft2 were obtained).

The presence of sodium in GLDA/HF could be managed, leading to effective permeability improvement of the Bandera core, while the Leopard core underwent a decrease in overall permeability; this latter observation was attributed to the formation of metal fluorides. Neither the presence of CaCO3 in the Bandera substrate or the use of KCl brine substituting for the usual NH4Cl led to permeability impairment. The overall results indicated that 1% HF and 0.6 M GLDA with an auxiliary agent could circumvent the expected problems associated with HF acidizing and modification, volume minimization, or elimination of preflushes. The use of the GLDA chelant facilitates, when using CT to deliver fluid to hot zones (which can be susceptible to formation damage if aggressive fluids based on HCl or formic acid are used, or if acetic acid is employed), could be jeopardized because of the difficulties inhibiting the corrosive effects of HF, HCl, formic, or acetic blends.

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