In this paper, a semi-empirical method for evaluating the injectivity decline in a produced water reinjection operation is proposed. The characteristics of injectivity decline during the pumping of produced water are represented as two-stage behavior - an early exponential decay and a late linear declining injectivity. The analytical modeling of coupled flow-transport phenomena for a two-layered medium reveals that the particle deposition during produced water re-injection constitutes a critical component of two stage decay-fading responses. The method was validated through matches between the modeling results and field measurements. The investigated concepts and developed technologies detailed in this paper can be applied directly to the produced water re-injection operations in order to predict possible injectivity decline and assist in understanding the mechanisms behind the decline phenomenon.

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