In recent years, there has been an increase in exploration and drilling activity in deepwater and deep-shelf gas and oil fields in the Gulf of Mexico. The economic feasibility is dependent on completion efficiency, with the goal to optimize the production rate. In addition, most of these formations require sand control to prevent completion failure. To achieve optimum hydrocarbon production and prevent sand failure, frac-pack is considered the best completion option. However, performing frac-packs in deep reservoirs (>15,000 ft) with high reservoir pressures (>10,000 psi), and temperature variations pose many challenges such as pump rate limitations due to high friction pressure and fluid-stability problems due to temperature changes.
To address these challenges and overcome the limitations of conventional fluids, a unique borate crosslinked that employs an encapsulated borate crosslinker with various base-fluid compositions was developed.
The fluid has a broad temperature stability range: 40°– 350°F.
The crosslink-delay can be varied between 1-20 minutes without affecting fluid stability.
The proppant-transport ability is excellent.
These attributes allow fluid injection at optimum rates with minimum friction pressure. This paper presents Gulf of Mexico, deepwater case histories that demonstrate the successful application of this fluid. The fluid design, fluid properties, and job execution, are discussed in the paper context.