Acid stimulation of oil and gas reservoirs, with a view to increasing well productivity, has been applied since the late- 19th century. Initially applied in carbonate reservoirs, the technique was extended to more complex mineralogies, over a number of years. However, it's fair to say that acid stimulation of wells is the exception rather than the rule. This probably stems from the complex, heterogeneous nature of formation minerals and the unpredictability of their response to conventional oilfield acid formulations. With inappropriate acid designs, or poor job procedures, even the best candidate wells can be damaged, sometimes irreversibly.
This paper discusses the current state-of-the art in matrix acidising and makes the case for the wider implementation of acidising, as a cost-effective method for production enhancement. It reviews the many rules used today in the design of acid treatments and how these rules have evolved with improvements in our understanding of the interactions between acids, formation constituents and well tubulars. The paper also reviews the rationale behind the use of additives such as corrosion inhibitors, iron control agents, clay control additives, surfactants, solvents, anti-sludges and diverting agents, etc. and makes general recommendations on appropriate loadings, where applicable.
Finally, the latest developments in acidising are considered, including the use of novel acid systems, to overcome many of the problems inherent in earlier formulations. Innovative equipment design, coupled with real-time monitoring capabilities, improved placement techniques and environmentally-friendly materials, are helping to transform acidising into a valuable asset in the quest for optimum performance from every oil and gas well. The paper references many key publications and provides the engineer with an up-to-date overview of the state-of-the-art in this very important discipline.